From Latin temperare (mix, mingle). In modern art a painting technique that uses an emulsion of natural watery binding agents (eggs, starch or glue) and oxydic drying oils (linseed, poppy-seed and nut oil, linseed oil varnish) as binding agent for the colour pigments. Regarding their effect, distemper colours fall in between water and oil colours since they contain binding agents of both colour types. When dry they are water-proof. In the past, distemper colours were often mixed with eggs or egg yolk as this binding agent becomes transparent after drying and the colours do not change. Until the 18th century, combinations of distemper and oil technique existed. It was only later that these mixed techniques lost their significance and were replaced by oil painting.